πŸ”₯ Manda-Inakir, Rifting Volcanism in the Afar |

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21 Mar. 18 May 28 Aug 25 May 10 July 19 Juty 7 fr. 20 July 25 Nor. 19 Dec. 25 Sept. June 21 May 31 J. no 3. 1. 1. Laskrift Lan nie Golden Southwes rift Last rim o calders Lan nike Kilaues llei Southwes S tenske from Alu.


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crustal magma chambers beneath the central rift valley (e.g., Main Ethiopian, Afar​, and Eastern or strata deposited near or below sea level on the two passive mar- gins record eruption of Alu-DallaFilla in northern Afar, accompanied.


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Rifts and rifted margins worldwide show a large structural variety as a result of the interaction of rock occurred in Afar: the Alu-Dalafilla eruption in continental margin of Norway 4, years ago, Geo-Mar Lett,. 22(1).


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The SE end of this rift moved inland and continues to rift in roughly 60 km long segments. Total volume of these traps is estimated at 1. There is a volcanic edifice located right at the triple junction between the three national borders, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Eritrea. There are similarities to the relationship between fissure swarms and central volcanoes also seen in Iceland. Red rounds are fumaroles. This propagation has been driven by what is called the Ethiopian Plume Head, a hotspot that arrived around 30 Ma. Hydrothermal system and wells surrounding Manda β€” Inakir. There was a small rhyolite eruption from a fissure at the northern tip of the dike. The Ethiopian trap basalts were erupted 31 β€” 29 Ma. Image courtesy Maguire, et al, Overall tectonic movement has been movement of the Arabian Plate away from Africa, opening the Red Sea. Active fissure eruptions. There have been three small volume basaltic eruptions from the southern and central parts of the axial graben in , and These fissure eruptions produced rubbly pahoehoe flows up to 2 m thick. Blue squares are hot springs. It is perhaps 10 km to the NE of the Manda β€” Inakir volcanic rifts. It is the β€” most recent eruption from this system. The plume head arrival created the most recent Large Igneous Province eruption sequence in the Afar with basalt eruptions peaking some 30 Ma. Its most recent eruption was perhaps , years ago. Volcanic activity here is concentrated along two parallel rifts, Manda and Inakir. This volcanic activity is similar to that along mid-oceanic ridge segments. It projects into Ethiopia with only the southern end in Djibouti. The Manda β€” Inakir range has two rift zones. Image courtesy Google Maps screen capture. Image courtesy Dumont, et al, The region is perpendicular to the Ethiopian β€” Djibouti border in the Ethiopian highlands. Total coverage of these basalts was , km2 on the Africa side of the combined rifts. Activity in Yemen covered at least 80, km2. Granyia did an excellent post on Ardoukoba November We will use the Manda β€” Inakir as a starting point for the larger discussion of recent volcanism in the region. That end is 2 km wide and fractured. Central volcanic centers produce basalts while marginal volcanic centers produce trachyites, rhyolites and ignimbrites. In some ways, volcanic activity has been nearly continuous for the last 4 Ma in the Afar. Image courtesy Smithsonian GVP. Manda β€” Inakir was the site of a β€” basaltic eruption that created a cinder cone and lava flow near the village of Korili and the Andabba Plain. This rifting event opened a series of fissures and reactivated faults along a 60 km segment of the rift. It is a smallish volcanic eruption NW of the Ethiopia β€” Djibouti border. Kammourta marks the SE location of the Manda β€” Inakir rift. The northern portion of this active region is defined by the propagation of rifting under the Red Sea. The Dabbahu β€” Manda Hararo activity β€” is the most recent volcanic activity associated with rifting propagation. The triple junction for all these tectonics is the Afar, which has the Ethiopian Plume head underneath it, providing copious amounts of eruptible magma.

Manda β€” Inakir recent volcanism. The location of the most recent eruption in β€” https://24verno.ru/best/translate-ingles-a-espanol-google.html a full m above sea level in Djibouti near the SE end of rift alu mar rifts.

Manda Inakir should be similar in nature. Dike volume was 2. The Kammourta volcano is flagged at the red pointer. The older Inakir rift has volcanic rocks overlying a NW β€” SE dome 12 x 25 km cut by a 2 β€” 3 km wide rift zone. The more recent Manda rift has roughly the same orientation, parallel with the Inakir rift.

Image screen capture from Haga, et al. These eruptions coincided with regional uplift of the Ethiopian plateau. This vegetation supports abundant wildlife. Propagation of Red Sea rift into the Manda β€” Inakir region.

It check this out 2, m high, topped with a caldera, and rhyolite lava domes and flows. Rift volcanism at the rift alu mar Manda Haro Rift. The Manda β€” Inakir activity is at the SW end of this rifting segment.

Surveys of the region discovered active rift alu mar, hot springs on the sedimentary plains, and gas emissions from several sites surrounding the fissure system. Satellite view of β€” Manda Hararo rifting lava flows. These segments are typically parallel separated by a couple kilometers.

In addition to the Large Igneous Province event 31 β€” 29 Ma, there have been multiple volcanic episodes in rift alu mar Afar. In short, the region is a tectonic mess, as a triple junction of rifts propagates W to SW into Africa. A paper by Haga, et al described field studies necessary to exploit the Manda β€” Inakir rift system for geothermal energy.

Multiple lava flows at center to the south of the main line of lava flows is the Rift alu mar Manda Hararo rifting event of β€” The Andabba plain is to the lower right of the image. The activity began in September with a large dyke emplacement.

Proposed schematic of mantle plume underlying the Afar and Ethiopian Plateau. Orange rounds are gas emissions with bubbling water sounds. Drilling for local water wells has rift alu mar what is described as anomalous hot water occurrences, with occasional temperatures above 80 C.

The dike was detected via seismicity and surface deformation. Climate is generally hot and dry with cooler desert nights. Afar and Yemen flood basalts on Ethiopian Plateau. Image courtesy Acocella, et al, Since this is my first excursion into the Afar Triangle, a short discussion of the region is in order.

Google Maps screen capture. Note that rift alu mar plateau is a combination of uplift and basalt deposits from the Afar flood basalt. Manda Hararo rifting event.

The Wiki describes its vegetation as lush with flowering shrubs and plants.

The Ethiopian plateau has been lifted at least 2 km by the underlying mantle plume. There is an extensive hydrothermal system associated with the rifting volcanism. Well rift alu mar would be in the 1 β€” 2 km range. The Stratoid Series is a pile of 1 β€” 6 thick pahoehoe basalt flows up to 1, m thick on the floor of the Afar Depression.

Trees and local forests tend to be located where local water pools. Rift propagation is also noted along with relative movement along major rifts. Double circles are water wells. Schematic of recent volcanic activity in the Afar. The region is part of an active seafloor rifting event link is part of the Afar Depression.

Recent eruptions located via red stars. The older Inakir rift had volcanic rocks overlying an 12 x 25 km dome of basement rocks.

Though there is a proposed geothermal project on the Djibouti side of the border based on the presence of magma relatively close to the surface. Image courtesy Beccaluva et al, Recent activity in the Afar are located along axial grabens along the rifting segments, and include fissure eruptions, silicic central volcanoes and basaltic shield volcanoes. Crust thickness of this part of the Afar varies from around 16 km to the north and 45 km beneath the Ethiopian plateau. Since this began in , there have been 13 basaltic dikes emplaced. Ran across this one via Smithsonian GVP. Note the Afar depression and the rift in the plateau. Lava flows are depicted in purple. Initial research into geothermal potential of the region suggests it can support a number of micro-geothermal plants in the 10 β€” kW range. Image courtesy Wadge, et al, The Mousa Ali stratovolcano sits on the tri-point intersection of the Ethiopia, Djibouti and Eritrea borders. The region is economically poor, with little infrastructure.